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Wiring and installation of cold-chain equipment and machines

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Installation of commercial refrigeration equipment should be carried out in accordance with the design estimates and the requirements of the equipment manufacturer.
Refrigeration equipment in warehouses and other manufacturing facilities located in accordance with the requirements of technical documentation on equipment. Areas of commercial refrigeration equipment in the trading areas must provide customers the convenience of choice of goods.

Stationary commercial refrigeration equipment should be installed at the foundation and anchor bolts securely fastened. Trade and technological equipment, which is the source of vibration shall be mounted on special foundations, footing and vibroisolation devices for permissible levels of vibration. The design of the trade of refrigeration equipment should include the device (means) to ensure electrical safety (fencing, earthing, isolation Conductor parts, safety disconnect, etc.). Parts of refrigerating equipment (including safety valves, cables, etc.), mechanical damage, which may cause danger, shall be protected by fencing.
Before starting the commercial refrigeration equipment, fencing and accessories, made from the floor for ease of installation, shall be installed in position, firmly and properly secured. Protective fences and similar devices should not be removed without the use of the tool.

MOUNTING Refrigeration units

The compressor should always be mounted on a horizontal basis. Pipelines suction line must have a bias towards the compressor, through the injection should have a small deviation away from the compressor. If the package includes the compressor vibration dampener (dampers), they also need to install, then the suction and injection pipelines must also be a vibration dampener. The vertical suction line every 3.5 meters should be installed maslovozvraschayuschie loop.
Parallel connected compressors must have a system to equalize the level of oil in the sumps, which can be arranged through the equalizing pipe connecting the crankcase of both compressors.
In systems with a surge pipe, the pipe should connect the two oil sump and have a diameter that the oil and a pair of refrigerant to go through it smoothly. In systems with two egalitarian pipes, one pipe connecting the oil of the crankcases of compressors and the other - the steam chamber. When installing a system of equalization of oil in any of these compressors to be installed in a horizontal plane. The level of oil can also be smoothed using the oil level.

In this case the compressor can be set at different levels, but the system must have the following equipment:

  •       Oil separator;
  •       Valve pressure;
  •       Sump;
  •       Oil filters;
  •       Controls oil level.

Each compressor shall be protected in the form of high-pressure relay, which is configured using a compressed gas. Why should first ask a pressure circuit, and then set the differential on a scale and check the pressure of breaking. It must be equal to the pressure circuit minus the working range. (Divided into scales are indicative in nature. If the compressor, condenser and receiver are installed outside the premises - the pressure circuit to the line of low pressure should be lower than the lowest possible pressure in the winter (when temperature environment). In this case, the pressure in the suction line after a long stop depends on the pressure in the receiver).
Elements of refrigerating machines and installations that use the body as a working fluid or gas, are connected by pipes.

Technology cutting pipe should not be:

  •      Disrupt the form of their cross-section;
  •      Prevent dents, chips hit inside the pipe.

To do so, use the rotary cutting device - pipe cutters. Tubes of small diameter 2 ... 4 mm, including the capillary tube should be cut truboreznymi and capillary scissors encountered a bully need to remove Rimmer.
Technology bending for soft and hard pipe varies, depending on their diameter. Manual bending with the help of springs is used for flexible pipes up to 19 mm. The radius of bending by hand is 6 ... 8 outer diameter of the pipe. If necessary, get a smaller bending radius for pipes over 19 mm in diameter - should be used trubogiby. Trubogiby can be manual, pneumatic, hydraulic and electrical power.
Pipes between themselves or with the cooling circuit elements are connected by threaded (valtsovochnyh), flanged joints or soldering.
Cone extension (rolling), which makes an angle of 90 °, the tip comes to connections, and pressed nut. To create a tapered expansion used milling with conical punches. When rolling tubes coin should be lubricated compressor oil. Clamped the tube to punch needed so that the pipe above the plane of sponges in? height of the cone sponge. Tapered funnel must be balanced with the flat ends.
When soldering, the pipes, for mechanical strength, combined with direct cylindrical socket that run a special tool - segment expander. The inner diameter of the cylindrical funnel must be such that the tubes had been attached between the capillary gap (0.025 ... 0.15 mm), which provides the suction of liquid solder into the space between the tubes by capillary effect. Such a solder connection can be in any position of the pipeline, if the gap will be larger - capillary effect does not arise. Connect the pipe can also help with the fittings (pipes, bends, tees, crosses, etc.).
Pipes should payatsya using solid solder at a temperature of 460 ... 560 ° C. Type of solder is determined by the ratio of copper and other metals in its composition. If the composition of silver solder known as silver. The higher silver content, the lower melting temperature solder, the better solder wettability and flow soldering. Good quality soldering obtained when using copper-phosphorus solders, but their higher melting temperature and wettability of silver worse. When soldering copper-copper compounds copper-phosphorus soldering flux does not apply. For soldering copper joints, brass, copper, bronze applied flux.
Capillary gap in the use of silver solder to be 0.05 ... 0.15 mm, using copper-phosphorus - 0,025 ... 0,15 mm. Three-copper-phosphorus solders with silver content up to 15% are designed for high-temperature soldering in the refrigeration industry. Solders in this class are widely used in the installation of refrigeration equipment for compounds that have a slight vibration and shock loads. When soldering netermostoykih of valve (TRV, valves, sight glasses) is required to cool to prevent unacceptable damage. Four-silver solders used for soldering joints experiencing considerable vibration load (for example, when soldering pipes to the compressor).

Ration applicable to heaters (burners) running on a mixture of gases:

  •     Propane-butane-air;
  •     Propane-butane-oxygen;
  •     Acetylene-air;
  •     Acetylene-oxygen.

It also uses resistive electric heaters. To reduce heat loss, especially when using a propane torch, using reflectors. When soldering is necessary to create a neutral environment inside the tube of gas (nitrogen), which will exclude the education scale inside the pipe.

When laying hladonovyh routes need to perform the following requirements:

  •      Pipe bends should be smooth. The walls of the tubes at the bends should not be collected in Corrugated, bend scrapping not allowed.
  •      Freon pipes must be insulated along its entire length.
  •      Each tube should have a separate insulation. Merge into one pipe insulation is not allowed. Insulation vulnerable to mechanical effects freon pipes should be covered with reinforced moistureproof adhesive tape or PVC tape, to avoid atmospheric effects. Mechanical isolation may be common for pipelines, electric cables and drainage pipes.
  •      Freon pipes in shtrobah should be secured every 0.6 m in Mount shtrobah for sure cornering. Shtroba width and depth must be sufficient to ensure that after the laying of communication remained cut off the possibility of plaster to a depth of not less than 20 mm. Bookmark in shtroby pipeline with brazed joints are generally not allowed.
  •      When the freon pipes enclosing structures (walls, ceilings interstorey) required the installation of steel or plastic sleeve. After the installation of thermal insulation sleeve patch and cement mortar.
  •      The cavities in the cartridge to be filled through the entire depth of foaming insulation.
  •      In the case of laying pipelines for freon suspended ceiling is permitted laying without protection against mechanical influences. Pipelines suspended for special brackets or perforated suspension. Mounting freon pipes to the existing way communication is allowed.
  •      Excess length hladonovyh pipelines on the maximum allowable length for this type of refrigeration unit is not allowed.
  •      On the horizontal sections to return oil to the suction pipe should be placed slope equal to 2%, in the direction of the compressor. The output of the evaporator, located above the compressor, you need to make U-shaped maslopodemnuyu loop, after which the suction line should be raised above the compressor to prevent liquid refrigerant flowing to the compressor. If the evaporator is located below the compressor, the evaporator outlet is also necessary to establish maslopodemnuyu loop. That part of the pipeline, which has a slope towards the compressor should start reverse siphons, located at the highest point truoprovoda in such a way as to prevent the ingress of oil in the evaporator. For refrigeration, with a capacity of upstream sections of suction pipe is made of two parallel pipes. The diameter of the pipe is determined in such a way that the sum of both of them to ensure the return of oil to the compressor at full load. When a partial load of large diameter pipes is corked flask of oil, formed in maslopodemnoy loop, bringing the rate of gas flow in a pipe of smaller diameter to increase, ensuring the return of oil. The diameter of the pipe should be determined on the basis of the conditions for the return of oil when you install with a minimum capacity.

If the condenser is located above the compressor, there is a risk that during the stop of compressor oil released into the flow line will drain back into the valve group. Therefore, if the difference in height between the condenser and the compressor is more than 3 m should be at the beginning of the ascending maslopodemnuyu loop. If the difference in the levels even more, you need to install maslopodemnye loops every 3.5 m. In addition, at the outlet of the compressor need to install oil separators. For installations with an adjustable output should be set for two parallel lines, like the suction line.

Liquid Pipeline shall have the inclination to control the flow. You can not create inverted U-shaped pipe sections, which can concentrate gas. For the bottom-up liquid pipelines longer than 5 m to increase the diameter of liquid tube. After the first run installation, you must add oil to the circuit to the required level in the compressor.
When mounting termoreguliruyuschih valves needed to fulfill the following requirements.
Corps TRV is set in a horizontal position as close as possible to the evaporator. Termosifon TRV should be on top.
TRV Corps should be located in a place where its temperature is always above the temperature termoballona.

Post termoballon on the tube, depending on the diameter of suction pipe, based on such testimony clockwise with the diameter of the pipeline:

  •      Less than 5 / 8 »(15,88 mm) - 12 ... 13 h;
  •      From ¾ »(18 mm) to 7 / 8» (22 mm) - 14 h;
  •      1 »(25,4 mm) to 1 3 / 8» (35 mm) - 15 h;
  •      More than 1 3 / 8 »(35 mm) - 16 am

You can not install termoballon bottom of the pipe or maslopodemnoy loop because there is oil distorts the real temperature of the gas.
Termoballon shall be placed as close as possible to enter the evaporator at the horizontal section.
If it is not possible to establish termoballon on a horizontal tube, as an exception, termoballon can be installed so that the coolant flow was directed downwards.
Capillary tube should be approached termoballonu top, but termoballon must be sent down.
Termoballon not have on-site soldering pipeline.
Termoballon must be carefully insulated, so that ambient air does not affect your TRV.
Equalizing pipe TRV should approach the pipe above and established at a distance of 100 mm from termoballona.
Distance from tube to equalize maslopodemnoy loop should not be less than 100 mm.
Drainage pipe is made of plastic pipes with diameter 16 ... 25 mm. At the corners you can use the flexible hoses. The pipeline, in which the condensate flows by gravity, must have a slope of not less than 100: 1 (reduction of 1 cm per 1 m length of pipe). If the withdrawal of the condensate by gravity can not be ensured, installed condensate pump.
Permitted the laying of drainage pipeline in conjunction with hladonovoy line and electric cable. Bends drainage pipes made of flexible hoses should be smooth with a radius of at least eight diameters.
Withdrawal of a condensate drain should be performed only with the device, the water slide.
Control the tightness of the cooling circuit is effected by filing with the contours of excess pressure, the working pressure of 1.5 times (test). If the refrigeration circuit elements that are sensitive to such pressure (eg, safety valves), they must be removed and in their place put the plugs. After tests taken with the elements set in place. Test the refrigeration unit should be carried out with dry nitrogen.

Installation works

After studying the plan, checking the route, marking and selection set to begin installation of wires.
In developing the plan wiring or determining the route of the place must take into account the following requirements.
Razvetvitelnye boxes, sockets and switches should be located in accessible locations for maintenance and Conductor of the need to be closed.
Sockets must be installed in the place to be installing electrical equipment at a height of 50 ... 80 cm from the floor and no closer than 50 cm from the grounded metal devices (plumbing and heating pipes, batteries, etc.).
Wires are laid only on the vertical and horizontal lines, and their location must be accurately known to avoid damage when drilling the holes, clogging dowels, nails or other fasteners. Horizontal cables performed at a distance of 50 ... 100 mm from the cornice and beams, 150 mm from the ceiling and a 150 ... 200 mm from the plinth. Vertically laid plots of wires must be removed from the corners of rooms, window and door openings are not less than 100 mm. Wires should not touch the metal building. Wires near a gas pipe or gas meters are laid parallel to them at a distance of not less than 1 m. In the presence of hot pipes (heating and hot water) wiring must be protected from exposure to high temperature thermal insulation pads.
You may not run wires under the plaster beams and, if the distance between them less than 3 mm.
Prohibited to connect the wires by wires skrutki.

Strictly prohibited the connection wires of aluminum wiring with copper.



Wiring and installation of cold-chain equipment and machines - Wiring and installation of cold-chain equipment and machine
Supply, installation and commissioning of industrial and commercial refrigeration equipment, such as:
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